TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT FOR BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS:  PHASED INNOVATION 
AWARD (R21/R33)

Release Date:  February 27, 2001

PA NUMBER:  PAR-01-057 (see replacement PAR-02-091) 

National Center for Research Resources

Application Receipt Dates:  June 1, and October 1 annually

PURPOSE

The National Center for Research Resources invites innovative 
applications for (1) the development of new and improved instruments or 
devices, (2) the development of new methodologies, or (3) the 
development of software to be used in biomedical research.  Current 
technology development applications to NCRR from individual 
investigators generally use either the R01 or the R21 mechanisms.  
Investigators with substantial preliminary data for a technology 
development application should continue to use the R01 mechanism.  This 
program announcement replaces PAR 98-047.  PAR 98-047 used only the R21 
mechanism.  Although this program announcement uses the R21/R33 phased 
innovation mechanism, applications using only the R21 mechanism are 
welcome.

The proposed research may involve conceptualization, design, 
fabrication, and/or testing of new instruments or devices.  
Applications to develop new experimental techniques and protocols using 
existing instrumentation as well as applications to develop software 
are invited.  It is expected that these technique development 
applications will have broad application to biomedical research.  The 
overall objective of these applications for new instruments, 
techniques, or software is the development of more powerful and more 
precise technology for biomedical research.  Areas of emphasis are 
biomedical engineering and technologies for the study of structure and 
function of biological systems at all levels of complexity.

This program announcement (PA), Technology Development for Biomedical 
Applications, will utilize the Phased Innovation Award Mechanism 
(R21/R33).  Specific features of this mechanism include:

o  Single submission and evaluation of both a feasibility/pilot phase 
(R21) and an expanded development phase (R33) as one application.
o  Expedited transition of the R21 feasibility phase to a R33 
development phase for combined applications.
o  Flexible budgets.
o  Flexible staging of feasibility and development phases.

It is anticipated that the majority of applications under this program 
announcement will use the combined R21/R33 mechanism.  Applications 
using the R21 mechanism alone will be considered, but applications 
using just the R33 mechanism will not be considered.  Applicants are 
strongly encouraged to contact program staff before submitting an R21 
application alone.  Refer to the INQUIRIES sections of this program 
announcement for program staff contacts.

ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS

The technology development to be supported under this program must be 
applicable to a variety of NIH research areas.  Applications to develop 
technologies that apply to one categorical NIH institute of a specific 
disease, generally do not meet the guidelines for this program.  Such 
applications will be considered only if the applicant clearly 
demonstrates the long-term potential of the technology for having a 
broad impact on biomedical research.

Applications may be submitted by domestic and foreign, for-profit and 
non-profit, and public and private organizations such as universities, 
colleges, hospitals, laboratories, units of state and local 
governments, and eligible agencies of the Federal government. 
Racial/ethnic minority individuals, women, and persons with 
disabilities are encouraged to apply as principal investigators.

MECHANISM OF SUPPORT

Support for this program will be through the National Institutes of 
Health (NIH) Exploratory/Developmental Research Grant (R21) and the 
Exploratory/Developmental Research Grant Phase 2 (R33).  The R33 is a 
recently established NIH grant mechanism to provide a second phase for 
the support of innovative exploratory and development research 
initiated under the R21 mechanism.  

Responsibility for the planning, direction, and execution of the 
proposed project will be solely that of the applicant.  The applicant 
can choose to submit an independent R21 application, or a combined 
R21/R33 application.  The advantage of the combined R21/R33 mechanism 
is that it offers a seamless transition between the exploratory phase 
and the development phase of a project.  Transition of the R21 to the 
R33 is dependent on completion of negotiated milestones.  Once these 
milestones have been achieved, the investigator must submit a progress 
report to the program.  Upon determination that the milestones have 
been accomplished, the R33 phase can begin.  This expedited transition 
between phases is a major advantage over the current protocol of an 
independent R21 award followed by a standard research project (R01). 

Submission of an independent R21 application is appropriate in cases 
where the R33 phase cannot be described without the preliminary 
knowledge gained during the R21 phase.  It is anticipated that the R21 
technology development applications will be reviewed by the same 
scientific review group that considers the combined R21/R33 
applications.  However, after completion of the R21 portion of the 
project, an investigator will have to submit an independent R01 
application.  

Requests for supplements under this program announcement are 
discouraged because of the flexibility of the timeline and the budgets.  
Proposals using either the R21 or R21/R33 mechanisms will not be 
eligible for renewal.

BACKGROUND

The National Center for Research Resources strives to provide the 
crucial tools, technologies, and research resources that will allow 
scientists to achieve the biomedical breakthroughs of tomorrow.  This 
program announcement is similar in spirit to the "Instrument 
Development for Biological Research" program in the Directorate for 
Biological Sciences at the National Science Foundation 
(http://www.nsf.gov/cgi-bin/getpub?nsf98119).  The major difference 
between the two programs is that instrumentation for the conduct of 
disease-oriented research is specifically excluded from the NSF 
program.  It is clear that some instrument development proposals could 
be considered either under this program announcement or by NSF.  
Applicants are encouraged to contact program staff at either NSF or NIH 
to discuss which program is more appropriate (see INQUIRIES section).
 
RESEARCH GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

The primary intent of this PA is to stimulate the development of new 
techniques for biomedical research.  High risk applications are 
encouraged, and the innovative nature of the application will be part 
of the review criteria.  For some high risk applications, it may be 
appropriate to use the R21 mechanism to generate preliminary data.  
Most applications will use the combined R21/R33 mechanism.
 
APPLICATION PROCEDURES 

SPECIFIC INSTRUCTIONS FOR PREPARING THE COMBINED R21/R33 PHASED 
INNOVATION AWARD APPLICATION

Applications for R21/R33 grants are to be submitted on the grant 
application form PHS 398 (rev. 4/98) and will be accepted at the 
application deadlines given on the first page of this solicitation.  
Application kits are available at most institutional offices of 
sponsored research and may be obtained from the Division of Extramural 
Outreach and Information Resources, 6701 Rockledge Drive, MSC 7910, 
Bethesda, MD 20892-7910, telephone 301/435-0714, email: 
grantsinfo@nih.gov.  Application kits are also available online at 
http://grants.nih.gov/grants/funding/phs398/phs398.html.

The combined R21/R33 application must include the specific aims for 
each phase and the feasibility milestones that would justify transition 
to the R33 phase.  Applications must include a specific section labeled 
Milestones following the Research Plan of the R21 phase.  Milestones 
should be well described, quantifiable and scientifically justified. A 
discussion of the milestones relative to the progress of the R21 phase, 
as well as, the implications of successful completion of the milestones 
for the R33 phase should be included.  The milestone section should be 
indicated in the Table of Contents.  Applications lacking this 
information, as determined by the NIH program staff, will be returned 
to the applicant without review.  

Prior to funding an application, the Program Director will contact the 
applicant to discuss the proposed milestones and any changes suggested 
by the review panel as indicated in the Summary Statement.  The Program 
Director and the applicant will negotiate and agree on a final set of 
milestones.  These will be the basis for judging the success of the R21 
work.  For funded applications, the PI will submit a progress report to 
the program upon completion of the R21 milestones.  Receipt of this 
progress report will trigger a review that will determine whether or 
not the R33 should be awarded.  The release of R33 funds will be based 
on successful completion of negotiated scientific milestones, program 
priorities, and on the availability of funds. The expedited review may 
result in additional negotiations of award.

The R21/R33 Phased Innovation Award application must be submitted as a 
single application, with one face page.  Although it is submitted as a 
single application, it should be clearly organized into two phases.  To 
accomplish a clear distinction between the two phases, applicants are 
directed to complete Sections a-d (Specific Aims, Background and 
Significance, Preliminary Studies, Research Design) for the R21 phase 
and then sections a and d (Specific Aims, Research Design) for the R33 
phase.  The Form 398 Table of Contents should be modified to show the 
sections for each phase as well as the milestones.  There is a page 
limit of 25 pages for the composite research plan.  Section a-d of the 
R21 research plan must not be longer than 15 pages.  The milestones, 
and the a-d sections for the R33 application can take, at most, an 
additional 10 pages.  The clarity and completeness of the R21/R33 
application with regard to specific goals and feasibility milestones is 
critical.  The presentation of milestones that are not sufficiently 
scientifically rigorous to be valid for assessing progress in the R21 
phase will reflect upon the scientific judgment of the applicant in 
this application.

1.  Face Page of the application:

Item 2.  Check the box marked "YES" and type the number and title of 
this program announcement.  Also indicate that the application is 
R21/R33 in the title.

Items 7 and 8: Costs Requested

For the R21 phase of the application, direct costs are limited to a 
maximum of $100,000 per year for a maximum of three years.  R21 budgets 
can exceed this cap to accommodate F&A costs of subcontracts to the 
project.  For the R33 phase of the application, approval must be 
obtained for direct costs in excess of $500,000 per year.  Contact 
program staff for approval (see INQUIRIES section).  The R33 phase is 
limited to three years.  The combined R21/R33 application is limited to 
five years.  The Modular Budget approach is not to be used.

2.  Page 2 - Description:  As part of the description, identify 
concisely the fundamental research and/or technology or tool to be 
developed, its innovative nature, its relationship to presently 
available capabilities, and its expected impact on biomedical research.

3.  Budget: The application should provide a detailed budget for 
Initial Budget Period (form page 4), for each of the initial years of 
the R21 and R33 phases as well as a budget for the entire proposed 
period of support (form page 5). Form pages should indicate which years 
are R21 and which are R33. All budgets should include a written 
justification.

4.  Research Plan:

Item a: Specific Aims.

The applicants must present specific aims that the applicant considers 
to be scientifically appropriate for the relevant phases of the 
project.  The instructions in the PHS 398 booklet for this section of 
research grant applications suggest that the applicant state the 
hypotheses to be tested.  Since the goal of this PA is to develop 
innovative technologies and tools, hypothesis testing per se may not be 
the driving force in developing such an application and, therefore, may 
not be applicable.  Furthermore for R21 grant applications, preliminary 
data are not required, although they should be included when available.  
For both the R21 and R33 phase, research that develops new technologies 
or tools is likely to require the application of principles of fields 
such as analytical chemistry, mathematics, physics, and engineering.  
Clear statements of these underlying principles within this section are 
essential.

Item b: Background and Significance

Elaborate on the innovative nature of the proposed research.  Clarify 
how the fundamental tools or technologies to be developed as proposed 
in this project will result in a significant improvement over existing 
approaches.  Explain the potential of the proposed technology for 
having an impact on a compelling area of biomedical research.  Clearly 
identify how the project, if successful, would result in new 
capabilities for biomedical research, the immediacy of the opportunity, 
and how any proposed technologies or tools would differ from existing 
technologies or tools.  This item will not be present in the R33 
portion of the application.

Item c: Preliminary Studies/Progress Report

While preliminary data are not required for submission of the R21 
phase, this section should provide current thinking or evidence in the 
field to substantiate feasibility of the R21 phase.  This item will not 
be present in the R33 portion of the application.

Item d: Research Design and Methods

Follow the instructions in the PHS 398 booklet. For this particular 
program, applicants should also address plans to make the products, 
tools, or technologies forthcoming from this research available to the 
relevant biomedical research user community.  

5.  Milestones:

For combined R21/R33 applications, a specific section labeled 
Milestones must be included following the Research Design and Methods 
of the R21 phase.  Milestones should be well described, quantifiable, 
and scientifically justified.  Milestones should not be simply a 
restatement of the specific aims.  The milestones section should be 
indicated in the Table of Contents.  Applications lacking this 
information, as determined by the program staff, will be returned to 
the applicant without review.

When the R21 milestones have been achieved, the PI will submit a 
progress report to the program.  Receipt of this progress report will 
elicit a review that will determine whether or not the R33 should be 
awarded. The release of R33 funds will be based on successful 
completion of milestones, program priorities and on the availability of 
funds. The expedited review may result in additional negotiations of 
award.

SPECIFIC INSTRUCTIONS FOR PREPARATION OF THE R21 APPLICATION WHEN 
SUBMITTED WITHOUT THE R33 PHASE.

Applications for R21 grants are to be submitted on the grant 
application form PHS 398 (rev. 4/98) and prepared according to the 
instructions provided unless specified otherwise within items 1-5 
below.  Application kits are available at most institutional offices of 
sponsored research and may be obtained from the Division of Extramural 
Outreach and Information Resources, 6701 Rockledge Drive, MSC 7910, 
Bethesda, MD 20892-7910, telephone 301/435-0714, email: 
grantsinfo@nih.gov.  Application kits are also available online at 
http://grants.nih.gov/grants/funding/phs398/phs398.html.

1.  Face Page of the application:

Item 2.  Check the box marked "YES" and type the number and title of 
this program announcement and indicate R21 in the title.

Item 7a: DIRECT COSTS REQUESTED FOR INITIAL PERIOD OF SUPPORT

For the R21 application, direct costs are limited to a maximum of 
$100,000 per year for a maximum of three years.  R21 budgets can exceed 
this cap to accommodate F&A costs of subcontracts to the project. The 
Modular Budget approach is not to be used.

2.  Page 2 - Description:

As part of the description, identify concisely the fundamental research 
and/or technology or tool to be developed, its innovative nature, its 
relationship to presently available capabilities, and its expected 
impact on biomedical research.

3.  Budget: The application should provide a detailed budget for 
Initial Budget Period (form page 4), for the R21 phase as well as a 
budget for the entire proposed period of support (form page 5).  All 
budgets should include a written justification.

4.  Research Plan:

The research plan for an R21 application is limited to 15 pages.

Item a: Specific Aims.

The instructions in the PHS 398 booklet for this section of research 
grant applications suggest that the applicant state the hypotheses to 
be tested.  Since the goal of this PA is to develop innovative 
technologies and tools, hypothesis testing per se may not be the 
driving force in developing such an application and, therefore, may not 
be applicable.  Furthermore for R21 grant applications, preliminary 
data are not required, although they should be included when available.  
For the R21 phase, research that develops new technologies or tools is 
likely to require the application of principles of fields such as 
analytical chemistry, mathematics, physics, and engineering.  Clear 
statements of these underlying principles within this section are 
essential.

Item b: Background and Significance

Elaborate on the innovative nature of the proposed research.  Clarify 
how the fundamental research or tools or technologies to be developed 
in this project will result in a significant improvement over existing 
approaches.  Explain the potential of the proposed technology for 
having an impact on a compelling area of biomedical research.  Clearly 
identify how the project, if successful, would result in new 
capabilities for biomedical research, the immediacy of the opportunity, 
and how any proposed technologies or tools would differ from existing 
technologies or tools.  

Item c: Preliminary Studies/Progress Report

For R21 grant applications, preliminary data are not required, although 
they should be included when available. 

Item d: Research Design and Methods

Follow the instructions in the PHS 398 booklet. 

FOR ALL APPLICATIONS

Appendix:  The only items that may be included in the appendix are 
original glossy photographs or color images of gels, micrographs, etc., 
provided that a photocopy of the same size is included within the 
research plan.

Submit a signed, typewritten original of the application, including the 
checklist, and three signed photocopies in one package to: 

Center for Scientific Review 
National Institutes of Health
6701 Rockledge Drive, Room 1040, MSC 7710 
Bethesda, MD 20892-7710
Bethesda, MD 20817 (for express/courier service) 

At the time of submission, two additional copies of the application, 
and five copies of the Appendix, are to be sent to: 

Office of Review 
National Center For Research Resources
6705 Rockledge Drive, Suite 6018, MSC 7965
Bethesda, MD 20892-7965
Bethesda, MD 20817 (for express/courier service) 

Applications must be received by the application deadline dates given 
on the first page of this solicitation.  If an application is received 
after that date, it will be returned to the applicant without review.  
The Center for Scientific Review (CSR) will not accept any application 
in response to this program announcement that is essentially the same 
as one currently pending initial review unless the applicant withdraws 
the pending application.  The CSR will not accept any application that 
is essentially the same as one already reviewed.  This does not 
preclude the submission of substantial revisions of applications 
already reviewed, but such applications must include an introduction 
addressing the previous critique.

REVIEW CONSIDERATIONS

Applications will be assigned on the basis of established PHS referral 
guidelines and will be reviewed for completeness by the Center for 
Scientific Review.  Applications will be evaluated for scientific and 
technical merit by an appropriate scientific review group convened by 
NCRR in accordance with the standard NIH peer review procedures.  As 
part of the initial merit review, all applications will receive a 
written critique and undergo a process in which only those applications 
deemed to have the highest scientific merit (generally the top half of 
applications under review) will be discussed, assigned a priority 
score, and receive a second-level review by the National Advisory 
Research Resources Council.

Review Criteria

The goals of NIH-supported research are to advance our understanding of 
biological systems, improve the control of disease, and enhance health.  
The reviewers will comment on the following aspects of the application 
in their written critiques in order to judge the likelihood that the 
proposed research will have a substantial impact on the pursuit of 
these goals.  Each of these criteria will be addressed and considered 
by the reviewers in assigning the overall score weighting them as 
appropriate for each application.  Note that the application does not 
need to be strong in all categories to be judged likely to have a major 
scientific impact and thus deserve a high priority score.  

1. Significance.  
o  Does this study address an important problem?
o  Are the results of the study likely to allow an important area of 
biomedical research to move forward? 
o  If the aims of the application are achieved, how will scientific 
knowledge be advanced?  
o  To what degree does the research or development of technologies or 
tools support the needs of the targeted biomedical research community?  
o  For tools and technologies intended for clinical research or use, 
two additional criteria will be considered: 
1) To what degree is the approach, technology or tool appropriate 
for clinical research and likely
to have utility in a clinical setting? 
2) Do applicants adequately address such issues as the protection 
of patient information and 
confidentiality? 

2. Approach.  
o  Are the conceptual framework, design, methods, and analyses 
adequately developed, well-integrated, and appropriate to the aims of 
the project?  
o  Does the applicant acknowledge potential problem areas and consider 
alternative tactics? 
o  What is the time frame for developing the proposed approaches, 
tools, or technologies?  Is this time frame suitable for meeting the 
relevant biomedical research community's needs?  
o  How easy will it be to use the proposed approach, tool, or 
technology? 
o  Are the plans for dissemination of the proposed endpoints, tools or 
technologies of the project adequate?

3. Milestones.  
o  How appropriate are the proposed milestones for judging the success 
of the proposed R21 work?
o  How appropriate are the proposed milestones in determining whether 
the R33 phase should be awarded?
o  Has an appropriate scientific meeting been identified to present the 
results of the R21 phase?

4. Innovation.  
o  Does the project employ novel concepts, approaches or method?
o  Are the aims original and innovative? 
o  Does the project challenge existing paradigms or develop new 
methodologies or technologies? 
o  Will there be additional application opportunities for the approach, 
technology or tool proposed? 

5. Investigator.  
o  Is the investigator appropriately trained and well suited to carry 
out this work?  
o  Does the project team have adequate expertise in both the areas of 
technique development and biomedical research?
o  Is the work proposed appropriate to the experience level of the 
principal investigator and other researchers (if any)?

6. Environment.  
o  Does the scientific environment in which the work will be done 
contribute to the probability of success? 
o  Do the proposed experiments take advantage of unique features of the 
scientific environment or employ useful collaborative arrangements? 

Additional Considerations

For the R21/R33 Phased Innovation Award Application, the scientific 
review group will evaluate the specific goals for each phase and the 
feasibility milestones that would justify expansion to the R33 phase.  

The scientific review group will also examine the appropriateness of 
the proposed project budget and duration; the adequacy of plans to 
include both genders and minorities and their subgroups as appropriate 
for the scientific goals of the research and plans for the recruitment 
and retention of subjects; the provisions for the protection of human 
and animal subjects; and the safety of the research environment as well 
as plans for including children as appropriate for the scientific goals 
of the research, or justification for exclusion. (See section on NIH 
POLICY AND GUIDELINES ON THE INCLUSION OF CHILDREN AS PARTICIPANTS IN 
RESEARCH INVOLVING HUMAN SUBJECTS).

AWARD CRITERIA

Applications will compete for available funds with all other 
recommended applications.  The following will be considered in making 
funding decisions: quality of the proposed project as determined by 
peer review, availability of funds, and program priority.

INQUIRIES

Inquiries are encouraged.  The opportunity to clarify any issues or 
questions from potential applicants is welcome.

Inquiries regarding general programmatic issues should be directed to:

Gregory K. Farber, Ph.D.
Biomedical Technology
National Center for Research Resources
6705 Rockledge Drive, Room 6152
Bethesda, MD 20892
TEL: (301) 435-0755
FAX: (301) 480-3659
Email: farberg@ncrr.nih.gov

Inquiries regarding review issues should be directed to:

Charles G. Hollingsworth, Dr. P.H.
Director, Office of Review
National Center for Research Resources
6705 Rockledge Drive, Room 6114
Bethesda, MD  20892
TEL: (301) 435-0807
FAX: (301) 480-3660
Email: charlesh@ncrr.nih.gov

Inquiries regarding fiscal matters should be directed to:

Mary Niemiec
Team Leader
Office of Grants Management
National Center for Research Resources
6705 Rockledge Drive, Room 6086
Bethesda, MD 20892
TEL: (301) 435-0842
FAX: (301) 480-3777
Email: mn20z@nih.gov

HEALTHY PEOPLE 2010

The Public Health Service (PHS) is committed to achieving the health 
promotion and disease prevention objectives of "Healthy People 2010", a 
PHS-led national activity for setting priority areas.  This Program 
Announcement is related to one or more of the priority areas. Potential 
applicants may obtain a copy of "Healthy People 2010" at 
http://www.health.gov/healthypeople/.

INCLUSION OF WOMEN AND MINORITIES IN RESEARCH INVOLVING HUMAN SUBJECTS

It is the policy of the NIH that women and members of minority groups 
and their sub-populations must be included in all NIH-supported 
biomedical and behavioral research projects involving human subjects, 
unless a clear and compelling rationale and justification are provided 
indicating that inclusion is inappropriate with respect to the health 
of the subjects or the purpose of the research.  This policy results 
from the NIH Revitalization Act of 1993 (Section 492B of Public Law 103-43). 

All investigators proposing research involving human subjects should 
read the UPDATED "NIH Guidelines for Inclusion of Women and Minorities 
as Subjects in Clinical Research," published in the NIH Guide for 
Grants and Contracts on August 2, 2000 
(http://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/notice-files/NOT-OD-00-048.html); a 
complete copy of the updated Guidelines are available at 
http://grants.nih.gov/grants/funding/women_min/guidelines_update.htm:  
The revisions relate to NIH defined Phase III clinical trials and 
require: a) all applications or proposals and/or protocols to provide a 
description of plans to conduct analyses, as appropriate, to address 
differences by sex/gender and/or racial/ethnic groups, including 
subgroups if applicable; and b) all investigators to report accrual, 
and to conduct and report analyses, as appropriate, by sex/gender 
and/or racial/ethnic group differences.

INCLUSION OF CHILDREN AS PARTICIPANTS IN RESEARCH INVOLVING HUMAN SUBJECTS

It is the policy of NIH that children (i.e., individuals under the age 
of 21) must be included in all human subjects research, conducted or 
supported by the NIH, unless there are scientific or ethical reasons 
not to include them.  This policy applies to all initial (Type 1) 
applications submitted for receipt dates after October 1, 1998.  

All investigators proposing research involving human subjects should 
read the "NIH Policy and Guidelines on the Inclusion of Children as 
Participants in Research Involving Human Subjects" that was published 
in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts, March 6, 1998, and is 
available at the following URL address:  
http://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/notice-files/not98-024.html.

Investigators may also obtain copies of these policies from the program 
staff listed under INQUIRIES.  Program staff may also provide 
additional relevant information concerning the policy.

URLS IN NIH GRANT APPLICATIONS OR APPENDICES

All applications and proposals for NIH funding must be self-contained 
within specified page limitations.  Unless otherwise specified in an 
NIH solicitation, Internet addresses (URLs) should not be used to 
provide information necessary for the review because reviewers are 
under no obligation to view the Internet sites.  Reviewers are 
cautioned that their anonymity may be compromised when they directly 
access an Internet site.

AUTHORITY AND REGULATIONS

This program is described in the Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance 
No. 93.371.  Awards are made under authorization of the Public Health 
Service Act, Title IV, Part A (Public Law 78-410 as amended by Public 
Law 99-158, 42 USC 241 and 287 and 287a) and administered under NIH 
grants policies and Federal regulations 42 CFR 52 and 45 CFR 74.  This 
program is not subject to the intergovernmental review requirements of 
Executive Order 12372 or Health Systems Agency review.

The PHS strongly encourages all grant and contract recipients to 
provide a smoke-free workplace and promote the non-use of all tobacco 
products.  In addition, Public Law 103-227, the Pro-Children Act of 
1994, prohibits smoking in certain facilities (or in some cases, any 
portion of a facility) in which regular or routine education, library, 
day care, health care or early childhood development services are 
provided to children.  This is consistent with the PHS mission to 
protect and advance the physical and mental health of the American 
people.


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